Op-Ed: Genocide Confirmed - Grudgingly
Dr. Rafael MedoffThe writer is director of The David S. Wyman Institute for Holocaust Studies, and coauthor, with Prof. Sonja Schoepf Wentling, of the new book 'Herbert Hoover and the Jews: The Origins of the "Jewish Vote" and Bipartisan Support for Israel.'
During 1941-1942, the British and American governments received increasingly detailed reports about machine-gun massacres of tens of thousands of European Jews by the Nazis in occupied Russia. One eyewitness account described freshly-covered mass graves “heaving like the sea” from the movement of victims who were not yet dead.
But Allied officials assumed the killings were random wartime atrocities rather than part of an organized Nazi strategy.
A report smuggled from Poland in June disclosed that the Germans had “embarked on the physical extermination of the Jewish population on Polish soil,” and had already murdered an estimated 700,000 Polish Jews.
In August, a telegram from the World Jewish Congress representative in Geneva, Gerhart Riegner, reported that the Germans intended "to exterminate all Jews from German and German-controlled areas in Europe after they have been concentrated in the east (presumably Poland).”
There were, in fact, many ways the U.S. could have been of assistance--but it would have meant taking steps the Roosevelt administration was unwilling to consider, such as admitting more refugees or urging the British to open the doors of Palestine.
At the same time, Members of the British Parliament, British Jewish organizations, and the Archbishop of Canterbury were pressing the Churchill government to respond and, as a top Foreign Office official put it, “unless we can make them some kind of gesture they will cause a lot of trouble.”
To alleviate this pressure, London reluctantly suggested to Washington that the Allies issue a joint statement.
The Roosevelt administration eventually went along with the statement, but only after watering down some of the language. For example, the proposed phrase “reports from Europe which leave no doubt” (that mass murder was underway) was whittled down to just “numerous reports from Europe.”
The declaration condemned the Nazis’ “bestial policy of cold-blooded extermination." That acknowledgement was important. But the statement proposed no steps to rescue Jews from Hitler. The idea of including an offer of asylum for Jewish refugees had been left out of the statement because, as one British official explained, it would mean making an offer “which would dog our footsteps forever”--in other words, some refugees might actually take them up on it.