human body
human bodyISTOCK

Glycyl-histidyl-lysine is the amino acid sequence inside the tripeptide known as GHK Basic. Studies suggest that these short-chain amino acids may facilitate cell communication for particular effects, similar to how insulin helps muscles and other tissues absorb blood sugar. Insulin is a hormone that is produced by the pancreas. Research speculates that peptides like GHK Basic may have an organ preference.

Clinical research findings suggest the GHK protein may be responsible for a wide range of practical biological activities, such as the promotion of dermal fibroblast functions, the development of blood vessels and nerves, an increase in the synthesis of elastin, glycosaminoglycan, and collagen, and increased neuron outgrowth. This peptide has been speculated to potentially have tissue repair capabilities in several different organs and tissues, including lung connective tissue, bone tissue, liver tissue, the lining of the stomach, and skin. [i]

Additionally, research suggests the peptide may possess properties to mitigate cancer and inflammation. It has been speculated by studies to reduce anxiety and discomfort and potentially combat aggressive tendencies. Clinical trials also suggest it may help with DNA repair, lung protection, the reactivation of COPD fibroblasts, the stimulation of cell cleaning through the proteasome system, and the inhibition of aging molecules such as NF-B.

Findings speculate GHK Basic may potentially repair the protective proteins in the skin barrier, simultaneously tightening and reversing loose skin and the age-related thinning of the skin. This process may allegedly decrease the depth of wrinkles and fine lines, and it also improves the skin's suppleness, clarity, and firmness. Investigations speculate it may make rough skin smoother, speed up wound healing, enhance the skin's general look, and promote hair development.

GHK Basic Initial Research

GHK Basic and Skin Regeneration

According to the speculations of several studies, mixing liver tissue from older organisms with plasma from younger ones may lead the liver tissue from older organisms to create proteins similar to those found in younger ones. [ii, iii, iv]

Research suggests the formation of collagen, glycosaminoglycans, and tiny proteoglycan decorin may all increase when GHK proteins are present. In addition, the findings of this study suggest that GHK has the potential to regulate the activities of metalloproteinases, which are enzymes that trigger the breakdown of proteins found in the extracellular matrix, as well as the actions of antiproteases. Studies speculate this function of GHK may be essential for regulating the breakdown of proteins in the skin, which could potentially help to avoid the buildup of damaged proteins and excessive proteolysis. Findings suggest that GHK may encourage skin cell regeneration and improve the skin's look by controlling how active metalloproteinases and their inhibitors are. In addition, research speculates GHK may affect the fibroblasts of the skin, which could contribute to the regeneration of the skin.

GHK Basic and Wound Healing

Clinical investigations on animal models have suggested that the peptide may accelerate wound healing through various pathways. [v, vi] Research suggests that when paired with a high-dose helium-neon laser, GHK may potentially hasten the contraction of wounds and the development of granular tissue, in addition to boosting the activities of antioxidant enzymes and enhancing the growth of blood vessels. According to several studies' speculations, the collagen dressing inside GHK may promote faster wound healing in healthy mice and diabetic animals. Wounds were speculated to have higher levels of glutathione and ascorbic acid, improved epithelialization, increased collagen production, fibroblasts, and mast cell activation. Additionally, wounds allegedly showed signs of enhanced epithelialization.

Studies suggest follicular stimulation and hair development may also be accomplished with the help of GHK and its analogs. Researchers speculate the naturally occurring copper complex GHK-Cu may stimulate an increase in the generation of vascular endothelial growth factor, stimulating the development and construction of blood vessels. Findings suggest this result may be accomplished by potentially increasing the vascularity of the blood supply to the hair follicle. Professionals imply that the GHK-Cu copper peptides may be coupled with other peptides, such as those that are plasma rich in platelets, stem cells, or exosomes.

GHK Basic and Inflammation, Antioxidants

Studies suggest GHK may exhibit a precursor to antioxidant activity. This activity may deactivate the effects of liquid peroxidation, which generates harmful free radicals capable of causing damage to DNA, proteins, and cells by binding the reaction results. [vii, viii]

Researchers speculate that GHK may have the potential to facilitate the structural reorganization of the connective tissues in the body. In addition, it is suggested the peptide may modulate the expression of several genes and speed up the genes involved in the TGF- pathway, reducing the incidence of lung COPD and acute lung damage. [ix]

GHK Basic and Fibrinogen

Research suggests that high fibrinogen levels may be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease because they stimulate rouleaux production and increase blood viscosity. [ix] Licensed professionals speculate that if the peptide can suppress fibrinogen production, it might potentially lower the likelihood of coronary events occurring, and this effect is independent of LDL cholesterol levels.

GHK Basic Peptide's Primary Research Focuses

The potential properties of GHK Basic, as suggested by research studies, are as follows:

  • The peptide may have potential in anxiety, aggressiveness, and pain research.
  • Studies suggest that GHK may permeate through the stratum corneum, and it may have an application in cosmetic compositions, especially those for wrinkle mitigation.
  • Researchers speculate GHK may also inhibit insulin and genes similar to insulin, reducing aging effects and promoting lifespan in various organs. Findings speculate that GHK-Cu peptide may be regarded as a potential neuroprotective agent which may help the organism avoid the development of typical age-associated neurodegenerative illnesses. [viii]

If you are a researcher interested to buy GHK peptides for your clinical studies, visit Biotech Peptide's website. Please note that none of the items listed are approved for human or animal consumption. Laboratory research chemicals are only for in-vitro and in-lab use. Any kind of physical introduction is illegal. Only authorized academics and working professionals may make purchases. The content of this article is intended only for instructional purposes.


[i] Pickart L, Margolina A. Regenerative and Protective Actions of the GHK-Cu Peptide in the Light of the New Gene Data. Int J Mol Sci. 2018 Jul 7;19(7):1987


[iii] Pickart L, Vasquez-Soltero JM, Margolina A. GHK Peptide as a Natural Modulator of Multiple Cellular Pathways in Skin Regeneration. Biomed Res Int. 2015;2015:648108. DOI: 10.1155/2015/648108.

[iv] Dou Y, Lee A, Zhu L, Morton J, Ladiges W. The potential of GHK as an anti-aging peptide. Aging Pathobiol Ther. 2020 Mar 27;2(1):58-61. DOI: 10.31491/apt.2020.03.014.

[v] Abdulghani, AA, Sherr S, Shirin S, Solodkin G, Tapia EM, Gottlieb AB. Effects of topical creams containing vitamin C, a copper-binding peptide cream and melatonin compared with tretinoin on the ultrastructure of normal skin – A pilot clinical, histologic, and ultrastructural study. Disease Manag Clin Outcomes. 1998;1:136-141

[vi] Leyden J, Stephens T, Finkey MB, Appa, Y, Barkovic S, Skin Care Benefits of Copper Peptide Containing Facial Cream. Amer Academy Dermat Meeting, February 2002, Abstract P68, P69

[vii] Beretta G, Artali R, Regazzoni L, Panigati M, Facino RM. Glycyl-histidyl-lysine (GHK) is a quencher of alpha,beta-4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal: a comparison with carnosine. Insights into the mechanism of reaction by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, 1H NMR, and computational techniques. Chem Res Toxicol. 2007 Sep;20(9):1309-14

[viii] Pickart L, Vasquez-Soltero JM, Margolina A. The human tripeptide GHK-Cu in prevention of oxidative stress and degenerative conditions of aging: implications for cognitive health. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2012;2012:324832.

[ix] Pickart L, Vasquez-Soltero JM, Margolina A. GHK and DNA: resetting the human genome to health. Biomed Res Int. 2014;2014:151479. DOI: 10.1155/2014/151479.