Bird catches fish from the Kinneret
Bird catches fish from the KinneretFlash 90


Q. Eggs from types of birds such as the eagle would not be kosher, but how can chicken eggs be kosher, since we don’t know the bird is kosher until it has been slaughtered?

A. Birds of "unclean" species are ruled out in principle.

In regard to "clean" species, we apply a probability principle. Most birds from such species are kosher; we can use their eggs unless we know the bird has a defect that would make it non-kosher. The same applies to cow’s milk.

Why do we examine the lungs of a slaughtered cow and not rely on the probability principle? Because lungs have a high rate of problems and we want to be sure (Chullin 12a and Rashi).


Q. What are the Seven Noahide Laws and to whom do they apply?

A. The Torah is not only for Jews but major sections are basic laws for the whole of mankind, known as the "Sheva Mitzvot B’nei No’ach" – the Seven Laws of the Sons of Noah.

As enumerated in Tractate Sanhedrin 56a in the Babylonian Talmud and explained by Maimonides (Hil. Melachim chapter 9), they are:
1. Do not worship idols.
2. Do not curse God.
3. Do not murder.
4. Do not commit immoral sexual acts.
5. Do not rob, steal money, or kidnap.
6. Establish courts of justice: judges and magistrates must exist in each district to administer the Noahide laws.
7. Do not eat a limb or flesh from a living animal.

The Rambam relates (Mel. 9:1) that the first six of these laws were given to Adam. The seventh was promulgated to Noah after the Flood, when mankind was given permission to kill animals for meat (Gen. 9:3-4).

It is unclear why all the seven are termed the "Seven Mitzvot of the Sons of Noah" or the "Seven Noahide Laws", for the first six were taught to Adam, not Noah. Perhaps it is because Adam represented the first genesis of man, Noah the second. Noah became the progenitor of mankind after the Flood and thus every gentile is called a "son of the covenant of Noah".

An English rabbi, Solomon Schonfeld, explains in his book, "The Universal Bible": "It was the failure of anti-diluvian mankind to observe even these seven basic laws which brought destruction to the world. After the deluge Noah’s descendants were given a second chance. Thus… (we term the laws) the Teaching for the Sons of Noah".

The Rambam categorically states that "all who accept the Seven Mitzvot and are careful in observing them, are counted among the pious of the peoples of the world and have a portion in the World to Come" (8:11).

Rabbi Raymond Apple was for many years Australia’s highest profile rabbi and the leading spokesman on Judaism. After serving congregations in London, Rabbi Apple was chief minister of the Great Synagogue, Sydney, for 32 years. He also held many public roles, particularly in the fields of chaplaincy, interfaith dialogue and Freemasonry, and is the recipient of several national and civic honours. Now retired, he lives in Jerusalem and blogs at