The Three Weeks of gradually-increasing mourning over the destruction of the Holy Temples and Israel's exile begin Tuesday, with the fast day of the 17th of the Hebrew month of Tammuz. This is the day on which Nebuchadnezzar and his Babylonian forces breached the walls of Jerusalem, after many months of siege on their way to destroying the Holy Temple.
The Three Weeks end on the 9th of Av - Tisha B'Av - the date on which both the First and Second Temples were destroyed, roughly 2,500 and 2,000 years ago, respectively.
The 17th of Tammuz is also the date on which Moses, having descended
In addition, the Talmud tells us, on this date some decades earlier, the evil King Menasheh had an idol placed in the
Excerpts from the morning selichot prayers:
"We rebelled against Him Who dwells in heaven, therefore we were scattered in all directions... We acted rebelliously before Thee with slandering tongues, therefore our tongues were made to learn to utter lamentation... The tempest-tossed afflicted people were utterly broken up and dispersed; the dry land became a boat wrecked for lack of a captain; she received [punishment] for her sins with principal and double interest, with mourning and moaning... Their adversaries assailed them on that day and... drove the nation like a chased gazelle, and there was none that sought to protect it... Turn to us, O Thou that dwellest on high, gather our dispersed from the four corners of the earth; say to Zion, Arise! And we shall arise. Convert the 17th of Tammuz into a day of salvation and comfort." (translation by Rev. Abraham Isaac Jacob Rosenfeld)
In honor of the day, and in view of the difficult situation Israel faces, the Chief Rabbinate issued the following call:
Click here for aticles in English on the Three Weeks
It is a time of trouble for Israel: Israel's enemies sound off and lift their heads in arrogance and conceit, opening their mouths wide with threats and terrorization. They boast of their desire to destroy the Jews; "they have consulted together with one another and made a pact against G-d... saying, Let us cut off Israel" (Psalms 83), and wish to war with us even as we are geared for peace.
We are in dire need of G-d's mercy and salvation; we have none on whom to lean except for our Father in Heaven. We must redouble our Torah study and observance of the Torah's commandments, with even greater strength and greater devotion - for "they come with chariots and horses, but we come calling in the Name of G-d" (Psalms 20).
We therefore hereby call upon the Nation of G-d to gather in synagogues on Tuesday, the Fast of the 17th of Tammuz, an hour and a half before the afternoon Mincha prayer, for the recitation of selichot [penitential prayers] and Psalms. Let us cry out with all our strength, and call to our G-d and the G-d of our fathers from the depths of our heart - for "G-d is close to all who call upon Him in truth" (Psalms 145).
May our cries arise before Him, and may G-d arise from His chair of strict justice and sit upon the chair of mercy. May He guide and lead us with compassion and kindness, for G-d's salvation can come in the blink of an eye. And may we see the fulfillment of this verse: "I will give peace in the Land, and you will lie down to sleep without fear... and no sword will pass through your Land." May this occur speedily in our days, Amen.
Signed and sealed:
Shlomo Moshe Amar, the Rishon LeTzion, the Chief Sephardic Rabbi of Israel
Yona Metzger, the Chief Ashkenazi Rabbi of Israel